syndicat

 

 

SYNDICAT & représentation des salariés

 

 

Représentation du personnel

 

 A) Comité d'entreprise

 

La législation anglaise n' instaure pas de comité d'entreprise national.

 

En revanche :

 

La directive 94/45/CE du Conseil de l'UE du 22/9/1994 (JOCE L. 254) oblige les entreprises d'une certaine taille à créer un Comité d'Entreprise Européen ou une procédure d'information en ces termes:

 

Article premier    Objet

 

1. La présente directive a pour objectif d'améliorer le droit à l'information et à la consultation des travailleurs dans les entreprises de dimension communautaire et les groupes d'entreprises de dimension communautaire.

2. À cet effet, un comité d'entreprise européen ou une procédure d'information et de consultation des travailleurs est institué dans chaque entreprise de dimension communautaire et chaque groupe d'entreprises de dimension communautaire, lorsque la demande en est faite suivant la procédure prévue à l'article 5 paragraphe 1, dans le but d' informer et de consulter lesdits travailleurs dans les conditions, selon les modalités et avec les effets prévus par la présente directive.

3. <…etc.>

 

Article 2     Définitions

 

1. Aux fins de la présente directive, on entend par:

a) « entreprise de dimension communautaire »: une entreprise employant au moins 1 000 travailleurs dans les États membres et, dans au moins deux États membres différents, au moins 150 travailleurs dans chacun d'eux;

b) « groupe d'entreprises »: un groupe comprenant une entreprise qui exerce le contrôle et les entreprises contrôlées;

c) « groupe d'entreprises de dimension communautaire »: un groupe d'entreprises remplissant les conditions suivantes:

- il emploie au moins 1 000 travailleurs dans les États membres,

- il comporte au moins deux entreprises membres du groupe dans des États membres différents

et
- au moins une entreprise membre du groupe emploie au moins 150 travailleurs dans un État membre et au moins une autre entreprise membre du groupe emploie au moins 150 travailleurs dans un autre État membre;

d) <…etc.>

 

Cette directive a été transposée en droit anglais par le Transnational Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations (Statutory Instrument de 1999 n° 3323, entré en vigueur le 15 janvier 2000).

  

 

B) délégués du personnel

 

La loi anglaise n'instaure pas d'obligation générale de procéder à des élections de délégués du personnel au sein des entreprises.

 

En revanche :

 

 Le chef d'entreprise doit consulter des délégués (employee representatives) lors de licenciement collectifs et lors de transfert d'entreprises.

La Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act de 1992 en pose le principe à l' article 188 et suivants et la Transfer of Undertakins (Protection of Employment) Regulations de 1981 à l'article 10 et suivants.

 

 pour les licenciements collectifs:

 

188. Duty of Employer to consult representatives.

(1) Where an employer is proposing to dismiss as redundant 20 or more employees at one establishment within a period of 90 days or less, the employer shall consult about the dismissals all the persons who are appropriate representatives of any of the employees who may be affected by the proposed dismissals or may be affected by measures taken in connection with those dismissals.

 

(1A) ....< alinéas suivants non reproduits> 

 

pour le transfert d'entreprise

 

10. Duty to inform transfer and consult representatives.

(1) ... <alinea non reproduit>

(2) Long enough before a relevant transfer to enable the employer of any affected employees to consult all the persons who are appropriate representatives of any of those affected employees, the employer shall inform those representatives of-

(a) the fact that the relevant transfer is to take place, when, approximately, it is to take place and the reasons for it; and

(b) the legal, economic and social implications of the transfer for the affected employees; and

(c) the measures which he envisages he will, in connection with the transfer, take in relation to those employees, or if he envisages that no measures will be so taken, that fact; and

(d) if the employer is the transferor, the measures which the transferee envisages he will, in connection with the transfer, take in relation to such of those employees as, by virtue of Regulation 5 above, become employees of the transferee after the transfer or, if he envisages that no measures will be so taken, that fact.

 

(2A) ... <alinéas suivants  non reproduits>

 

 

 

Syndicat  (Trade Union)

 

Les dispositions fondamentales concernant les syndicats se trouvent dans la loi Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act de 1992 qui consolide plusieurs lois antérieures. Cette loi a été réformée par la loi Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights  de 1993.

 

Par la suite, la Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) sera désignée par son acronyme "TULR(C)A".

 

 

A) Définition

 

Un syndicat est ainsi défini par l’article 1 TULR(C)A :

 

1. Meaning of « trade union ».

In this Act a « trade union » means an organisation (whether temporary or permanent)-

(a) which consists wholly or mainly of workers of one or more descriptions and whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers of that description or those descriptions and employers or employers’ association ;or

(b) which consists wholly or mainly of-

(i) constituent or affiliated organisations which fulfil the conditions in paragraph (a) (or themselves consit wholly or mainly of constituent or affiliated oraganisations which fulfil those conditions),or

(ii) representatives of such constituent or affiliated organisations,

 and whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers and employers’ associations, or the regulation of relations between its constituent or affiliated organisations.

 

Les syndicats ont une quasi personnalité morale, ce que l’article 10 du Trade Union and Labour Relations (consolidation) Act appelle un «quasi-corporate status »:

 

10. Quasi-corporate status of trade unions.

(1) A trade union is not a body corporate but-

(a) it is capable of making contracts ;

(b) it is capable of suing and being in its own name, whether in proceedings relating to property or fouded on contract or tort or any other cause of action ; and

(c) proceedings for an offence alleged to have been committed by it or on its behalf may be brought against it in its own name.

(2) A trade union shall not be treated as if it were a body corporate except to the extent authorised by the provisions of this Part.

(3) A trade union shall not be registered-

(a) as a company under the Companies Act 1985 ; or

(b) under the Friendly Societies Act 1974 or the Industrial and Provident Societies Act 1965;

and any such registration of a trade union (whenever effected) is void.

 

 

B) Syndicats inscrits (listed trade unions) et syndicats indépendants (independent trade union)

 

Un syndicat peut exister per se s’il satisfait à la définition donnée par l’article 1 ci-dessus; mais il est intéressant pour les syndicats de renforcer leur identité et leur droits en devenant des syndicats dits « inscrits » (listed trade union), voire qualifiés d’ « indépendant » (independant trade union).

 

 

Un syndicat est dit « inscrit » s’il se fait inscrire sur une liste officielle de syndicat tenue par le Certification Officer dont la mission est décrite par l' article 2 TULR(C)A:

 

2. The list of trade unions

(1) The certification Officer shall keep a list of trade unions containing the names of-

(a) the organisations whose names were, immediately before the commencement of this Act, duly entered in the list of trade unions kept by him under section 8 of the Trade union and Labour Relations Act 1974, and

(b) the names of the organisations entitled to have their names entered in the list in accordance with this Part.

(2) the Certification Officer shall keep copies of the list of trade unions, as for the time being in force, available for public inspection at all reasonable hours free of charge.

(3) A copy of the list shall be included in his annual report.

(4) The fact that the name of an organisation is included in the list of trade unions is evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) that the organisation is a trade union.

(5) On the application of an organisation whose name is included in the list, the Certification Officer shall issue it with a certificate to that effect.

(6) A document purporting to be such a certificate is evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) that the name of the organisation is entered in the list.

 

 

Il y a quelques avantages à être syndicat inscrit :

 

- l’inscription est la reconnaissance officielle de la qualité de syndicat ( Cf. art. 2 (4) de la Trade Union and Labour Relations (consolidation) Act : «  The fact that the name of an organisation is included in the list of trade unions is evidence … that the organisation is a trade union. »)

- des allégements fiscaux,

- profiter des dispositins propres aux relations des trustees avec leur mandant puisque le patrimoine d’un syndicat doit être placé en trust entre les mains d’un trustee,

- enfin, l’inscription est une condition sine qua non pour pouvoir prétendre au statut de syndicat indépendant (la perte de l’inscription entraînant également la perte du certificat d’indépendance)

 

La procédure d' inscription et de retrait est décrite par les articles 3 et 4 TULR(C)A: 

 

3. Application to have name entered in the list.

(1) An organisation of workers, whenever formed, whose name is not entered in the list of trade unions may apply to the Certification Officer to have its name entered in the list.

(2) The application shall be made in such form and manner as the Certification Officer may require and shall be accompanied by-

(a) a copy of the rules of the organisation,

(b) a list of its officers,

(c) the address of its head or main office, and

(d) the name under which it is or is to be known, and by the prescribed fee.

(3) If the certification Officer is satisfied-

(a) that the organisation is a trade union,

(b) that subsection (2) has been complied with, and

(c) that entry of the name in the list is not prohibited by subsection (4),

he shall enter the name of the organisation in the list of trade unions.

 

(4) The Certification Officer shall not enter the name of an organisation in the list of trade unions if the name is the same a that under which another organisation-

(a) was on 30 september 1971 registered as a trade union under the Trade Union Acts 1871 to 1964.

(b) was at any time registered as a trade union or employers’ association under the Industrial Relations Act 1971, or

(c) is for the time being entered in the list of trade unons or in the list of employers’ association kept under Part II of this Act,

or if the name is one so nearly resembling any such name as to be likely to deceive the public.

 

4. Removal of name from the list.

(1) If it appears to the Certification Officer, on application made to him or otherwise, that an organisation whose name is entered in the list of trade unions is not a trade union, he may remove its name from the list.

(2) He shall not do so without giving the organisation notice of his intention and considering any representations made to him by the organisation within such period (of not less than 28 days begining with the tha date of the notice) as may be specified in the notice.

(3) The Certification Officer shall remove the name of an organisation from the list of trade unions if-

(a) he is requested by the organisation to do so, or

(b) he is satisfied that the organisation has ceased to exist.

 

Le certificat d’indépendance est lui aussi accordé par le Certification Officer et suppose une appréciation de fond de sa part sur la prétendue indépendance du syndicat. La question de l’indépendance est examinée sous tous les aspects et notamment celui de l’indépendance vis-à-vis de la direction de l’entreprise. Le problème s’est surtout posé pour des syndicats de cadres bien souvent constitués à l’initiative de la direction ou du moins avec son bienveillant soutien. Les syndicats « maison » ou encore appelés « jaunes » en France ne pourraient prétendre à un tel certificat d’indépendance.

 

La définition, la procédure d'obtention et de retrait du certificat d'indépendance sont établis par les articles 5 à 8 ci-dessous:

  

5. Meaning of « independent trade union ».

In this Act an « independent trade union » means a trade union which-

(a) is not under the domination or control of an employer or any such group of employers or of one or more employers’ association, and

(b) is not liable to interference by an employer or any such group of association (arising out of the provision of financial or material support or by any other means whatsoever) tending towards such control ;

and references to « independence », in relation to a trade union, shall be construed accordingly.

 

6. application for certificate of independence.

(1) a trade union whose name is entered on the list of trade unions may apply to the Certification Officer for a certificate that it is independent.

The application shall be made in such form and manner as the Certification Officer may require and shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.

(2) The Certification Officer shall maintain a record showing details of all applications made to him under this section and shall keep it available for public inspection (free of charge) at all reasonable hours.

(3) If an application is made by a trade union whose name is ot entered on the list of trade unions, the Certification Officer shall refuse a certificate of independence and shall enter that refusal on the record.

(4) In any other case, he sahall not come to a decision on the application before the end of the period of one month after it has been entered on the record; and before coming to his decision he shall make such enquiries as he thinks fit and shall take into account any relevant information submitted to him by any person.

(5) He shall then decide whether the applicant trade union is independent and shall enter his decision and the date of his decision on the record.

(6) If he decides that the trade union is independent he shall issue a certificate accordingly ; and if he decides that it is not, he shall give reasons for his decision.

 

7. Withdrawal or cancellation of certificate.

(1) The Certification Officer may withdraw a trade union’s certificate of independence if he is of the opinion that the union is no longer independent.

(2) Where he proposes to do so he shall notify the trade union and enter notice of the proposal in the record.

(3) He shall not come to a decision on the proposal before the end of the period of one month after notice of it was entered on the record ; and before coming to his decision he shall make such enquiries as he thinks fit and shall take into account any relevant information submitted to him by any person.

(4) He shall then decide whether the trade union is independent and shall enter his decision and the date of his decision on the record.

(5) He shall confirm or withdraw the certificate accordingly; and if he decides to withdraw it, he shall give reasons for his decision.

(6) Where the name of an organisation is removed from the list of trade unions, the Certification Officer shall cancel any certificate of independance in force in respect of that organisation by entering on the record the fact that the organisation’s name has been removed from that list and that the certificate is accordingly cancelled.

 

8. conclusive effect of Certification officer’s decision.

(1) A certificate of independence which is in force is conclusive evidence for all purposes that a trade union is independent; and a refusal, withdrawal or cancellation of a certificate of independence, entered on the record, is conclusive evidence for all purposes that a trade union is not independent.

(2) A document purporting to be a certificate of independence and to be signed by the Certification Officer, or by a person authorised to act on his behalf, shall be taken to be such a certificate unless the contrary is proved.

(3) A document purporting to be a certified copy of an entry on the record and to be signed by the Certification Officer, or by a person authorised to act on his behalf, shall be taken to be a true copy of such an entry unless the contrary is proved.

(4) If in any proceedings before a court, the Employment Appeal Tribunal, the Central Arbitration Committee, ACAS or an employment tribunal a question arises whether a trade union is independent and there is no certificate of independence in force and no refusal, withdrawal or cancellation of a certificate recorded in relation to that trade union-

(a) that question shall not be decided in those proceedings, and

(b) the proceedings shall instead be stayed or sisted until a certificate of independence has been issued or refused by the Certification Officer.

(5) The body before whom the proceedings are stayed or sisted may refer the question of the independence of the trade union to the Certification Officer who shall proceed in accordance with section 6 as on an application by that trade union.

  

 Le fait d'être certifié indépendant donne au syndicat certains droits:

 

 < à suivre .... >